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freshwater mussel classification

For those in the United States who are interested in identifying their local freshwater mussels, the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society released the MusselID app last year in the fall. For the most part the sixteen dams on the Chattahoochee and Flint rivers have long-term negative impacts. When settlers first arrived on these shores, they were astonished to discover rivers practically paved in freshwater mussels.  The Apalachicola River flows south through Florida into the Apalachicola Bay, where it meets the Gulf of Mexico. “In the last year or so we’ve had 45 different reports come in of species and location,” Morris said. by Rob McCormack. Why Fish Might Be the Mussels’ Meal Ticket. Freshwater mussels are the most imperiled wildlife in the world. Mussels were also an important food source. Freshwater pearls are still cultured by inserting small pieces of native mussel … Freshwater mussels are vital components of stream ecosystems, yet remain threatened. Like our native salmonids, freshwater mussels … — A recent scuba survey of the Kiski River, the first in more than 110 years in what was once a dead river, turned up eight species of freshwater mussels, surprising researchers.  This workshop examines the ecology and identification of the 29 native mussel species that are endemic to the ACF Basin. Wilder Future. Our freshwater mollusks … Mussels in Trouble . Mussel populations are declining globally, but the factors contributing to these declines are … (2015). Similarly, the only freshwater mussel in the Yukon, the Yukon Floater (Anodonta beringiana), is found nowhere else in Canada. For more … The freshwater mussel populations declined after decades of pollution and habitat loss. This has been principally due to (1) a … You can call them clams or mussels, the names are interchangable, but they should also be called endangered. So far some 700 people have downloaded and used the app, and about 150 people are regular users and contributors. species was formerly abundant,it is possible that this filtration acted to clarify river water to the benefit of other species,including juvenile Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and brown or sea trout (Salmo trutta) (Zuiganov et al.1994). • Araujo, R & Moreno, R. 1999. The app has origins with a lot fewer cutesy illustrations and simple interactive questions. Enter Species Name ©Luke Massey/2020VISION. The majority of the species we love have been getting less and less common, but there's still time to bring them back. Over 75% of North America’s species are listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern. The Granite State is home to some 10 species of native freshwater mussels, 70% of which are listed as species of greatest conservation need. “The distribution data is obviously limited to Canadian distribution. Freshwater mussels, the vacuum cleaners of the aquatic ecosystem, feed by filtering algae and small particles from the water. The Unionidae are a family of freshwater mussels, the largest in the order Unionida, the bivalve molluscs sometimes known as river mussels, or simply as unionids.. “It’s an information tool, to get that information out to the general public, to increase the awareness,” Morris said. Males release sperm into the water column where it is taken up by an incurrent aperture in the females.  The available information concerning listed mussel species and their relationships with host fish is limited.   Therefore, identifying host fish for imperiled freshwater mussel species is critical in conservation efforts.   Identification of host fish can be determined through artificial infection in the laboratory using an array of techniques.  These techniques are vital for the conservation and propagation of freshwater mussels. Information. Class: Bivalvia. According to the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society, freshwater mussels are "the most gravely imperiled group of animals in … The range of distribution for this family is …  A handful of the mussels rescued from the drought of 2000 are still housed at the hatchery and are doing well. Freshwater mussels are the most imperiled wildlife in the world. A freshwater fishing license is required to take any freshwater mussel species. It was the most diverse mussel fauna on earth. Aim North America harbours the most diverse freshwater mussel fauna on Earth. The app does not work. “We offer an identification workshop every year, so we were looking for a tool for people to identify specimens out in the field after they left us, after the workshop.”, The Toronto Zoo and Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s Clam Counter app. Several described methods include producing glochidia in bundles that resemble food items (conglutinates), producing superconglutinates of glochidia that are attached to the mussel by a long mucus string to mimic prey fish, discharging glochidia in a mucus web, modification of mantle flaps in the females to mimic small fish, and releasing glochidia into the water column. Subclasses. Freshwater mussels (Bivalvia: Unionidae) is a diverse family with around 700 species being widespread in the Northern Hemisphere and Africa. About The freshwater pearl mussel is an endangered species of mollusc, found in clean, nutrient poor low-calcium rivers.  Two ponds, each with a surface area of 1,012 m2, supply soft water to the mussel facility at a rate of up to 190 liters/minute. Established in 1964, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species has evolved to become the world’s most comprehensive information source on the global conservation status of animal, fungi and plant species. The method of fish host attraction varies among species. Species richness of freshwater mussels in the west and northwest is generally low (Figure 2-2-i, Table 2-2-i), but five of the six species of freshwater mussels in British Columbia are found nowhere else in Canada. We’re looking for ways to increase usage and reporting.”. The basin is currently home to 29 species of mussels. Unfortunately, the mussel faces other challenges for which it hasn’t had time to evolve solutions. The freshwater mussel genera Unio (Palearctic) and Gonidea (Pacific Nearctic drainages) have been difficult to place in the classification of the Unionidae. MusselID focuses on species in the United States. — A recent scuba survey of the Kiski River, the first in more than 110 years in what was once a dead river, turned up eight species of freshwater mussels, surprising researchers. WSNFH held back several species (approximately 25 mussels), as of January 2008, 12 were is alive and doing well (48% survival after 7 years in refugia).  While the mussels were held at WSNFH, propagation techniques were developed, glochidia were collected from several species and transformed juveniles were collected and kept alive for six months and studied. Slugs, snails and freshwater mussels Species. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) River Basin is located in the southeastern United States. The four species of mussels sampled were the European blue mussel, the greenshell mussel, the undulate venus, and the Pacific venus clam. The Unionida, of worldwide distribution, are the pearly freshwater mussels. Museum records indicate that the species may once have ranged as far north as the Gascoyne River and east to Esperance. It’s an app from Fisheries and Oceans Canada in partnership with the Toronto Zoo made to help children, families and everyday people learn about, identify and report sightings of native freshwater mussels. After European settlement, mussels were harvested for their shells to make pearl buttons. This taonga species was traditionally a food source for Māori, and the shells were used as tools to help produce fibre from harakeke (flax). Freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled groups of animals in the United States. The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACF) supports one of the most diverse freshwater mollusk assemblages in the Southeast United States.  Historically, the ACF had at least 14 genera and 33 species with six species being unique to the basin.  Over the past decade, numerous surveys were conducted in the ACF and concluded that only 29 native mussels currently exist within the ACF. Mussels live in stream sediments and can be challenging to survey given constraints related to water depth, flow, and tim … There are a huge number of different species of freshwater mussels in the rivers and lakes of NSW. Similar Species Several of the large freshwater mussels look similar and can be easily confused, particularly with smaller specimens. Freshwater Mollusks are important North American streams, rivers, and lakes support the richest diversity of freshwater mollusks on the planet.  Once the mussels had reached a length of 3-5 millimeters they would be transferred to the newly developed pond culture system that has been installed in one of the mussel ponds here at the facilities. A freshwater fishing license is required to take any freshwater mussel species.  This will allow for the propagation of hatchery reared listed mussel species and ultimately to the augmentation of wild populations that are currently in decline and for the re-introduction of listed species to native habitat where they historically occurred in the past. I cannot set a location other than where I am currently. Kākahi are common and widespread throughout New Zealand, in habitats ranging from small, fast-flowing strea… This decline has been attributed to the loss of habitat associated with river regulation, eutrophication, and other types of pollution, and possibly through loss of the host fish on which completion of the life cycle depends.   Freshwater mussels are under threat and are declining, both in New Zealand and worldwide. The majority of the species we love have been getting less and less common, but there's still … Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and with goals of a National Strategy for Conservation of Freshwater Mussels. Like our native salmonids, freshwater mussels are declining due to habitat degradation and fragmentation caused by dams, water pollution, and reduced streamflow. Your email address will not be published. Columbus State University, 2009. They have two shells connected by a hinge-like ligament. Clam Counter, which launched in 2017 and is available in both the Apple App Store and Google Play store, combines the first version of Morris’s app with the interactivity of the zoo’s apps by providing an interactive identification guide with a way of reporting sightings and submitting photos of mussels. The general public just thinks ‘Oh, we have a few clams in the river.’ Providing the app will help people learn about the differences between species and learn about them and about conserving the waterways in which they inhabit.”, Featured Image:  Canadian freshwater mussels (Mucket, mapleleaf, pimpleback, deertoe, threeridge and fragile papershell mussels), Photo courtesy of Fisheries and Oceans Canada. Freshwater mussels have a unique lifecycle and may rely on certain fish to complete their metamorphosis. *** We have covered Diplodon as Mussel of the Month twice before: D. chilensis and D. parallelopipedon..  This isolation should be considered as only a temporary fix;  however, some refugia may be long-standing, thereby having many endemic species, not found elsewhere, that could survive as relict populations, providing the means for broodstock for future population recovery efforts.  The Chattahoochee and Flint Rivers merge together at Lake Seminole to create the Apalachicola River. The occurrence of mussel species was compiled for 135 drainage units within 126 river systems or lake watersheds across North America (Table 2). The eDNA shedding and decay rates reported within … Australia has 18 species of mussels, most of which are found nowhere else in the world. “Clam Counter” welcomes you with a wide-eyed, smiling orange mollusk waving from inside a bright blue shell. “People don’t really realize how many mussel species we have,” Oetker said. Ask the Great Lakes Now Team Your PFAS Question, Beneath the Surface: The Line 5 Pipeline in the Great Lakes, Oldest Coast Guard cutter with smallest crew and largest Great Lakes responsibility needs replacing, Index: International Joint Commission’s 2020 Triennial Assessment of Progress Report, What the Biden Administration Might Mean For Water. Die-offs are increasingly recognized as population threats, with etiologies frequently undetermined. Here in Vermont there are eighteen separate species of freshwater mussels … Because scientists have only recently become aware of the severe decline in mussel populations, some species … Freshwater Mussel Die-Off Response and One Health Assessment. Morris is a research scientist with Fisheries and Oceans Canada’s Great Lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences. This mussel will live and naturally breed to huge numbers in your ponds and keep your water clean. All reproduce by means of a larval stage that is parasitic on a fish or salamander. But the app also benefits Morris and his team in their research by helping them get more sampling and more accurate distribution data than they would be able to on their own.  Staff are experimenting with different algae concentrations to develop a nutrition plan to use for juvenile mussel grow out. Because there were no controls on this industry, mussels were over-harvested and numbers of many s…  The system is based on a design by Dr. Chris Barnhart of Missouri State University. The app has a key that allows someone to answer a selection of yes-and-no questions to determine the species, using the GPS signal in that person’s phone to help narrow down the potential species. Friends of the Warm Springs National Fish Hatchery. There are currently 60 native freshwater mussel species remaining in Ohio. Pollutants and altered river flows threaten many freshwater mussel species. “There’ve been a bunch of other species-identifier apps that had been developed and with there being so many American mussel species, we thought it might be a good idea to have one for mussels and provide outreach for the various North American mussel species that we’ve got,” said Susan Rogers Oetker, the app coordinator for the Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society. The freshwater pearl mussel and its habitat are fully protected by law, under Schedule 5 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 (as amended) and Annex 2 of the Habitats Directive.  Of which, four species (Amblema neislerii, Hamiota subangulata, Medionidus penicillatus, and Pleurobema pyriforme) are listed as endangered and two species (Elliptio chipolaensis and Elliptoideus sloatianus) are listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act of 1973, as amended (Act).  A number of studies have been performed at WSNFH, to identify the particular host fish for certain mussels (i.e., Elliptoideus sloatianus (Purple bankclimber), Quadrula infucata (Sculptured pigtoe),   Hamiota subangulata (Shine-rayed pocketbook), Villosa vibex (Southern rainbow), and Villosa lienosa (Little spectaclecase).  This information is important for conservation efforts, since reintroductions and augmentation of mussel populations will only be successful if the mussel’s host fish is present in the same areas as the mussel. Seems a significant problem with the app. When a body of water is dammed, the stream channel is transformed from a free-flowing, well-oxygenated environment to one that is more stagnant and prone to heavy silt deposition. Although freshwater mussels aren't edible—they’re tough and taste bad—there are freshwater mussel fisheries that serve an industry for buttons and pearls worth a … The same trend of declining mussel populations is occurring in Pennsylvania. The Louisiana pearlshell mussel … Although freshwater mussels are most diverse in North America, where there are 281 species and 16 subspecies, they are among the most rapidly declining animal groups on the continent. “Freshwater mussels are not the most charismatic species that a lot of people see or understand, and I think people don’t appreciate the diversity or role these species play in the ecosystem.”. Providing the app will help people learn about the differences between species and learn about them and about conserving the waterways in which they inhabit.” Featured Image: Canadian freshwater mussels (Mucket, mapleleaf, pimpleback, deertoe, threeridge and fragile papershell mussels), …  The system consists of ten 5 gallon buckets that house 5 filter cups per bucket. A federally-endangered species, the dwarf wedgemussel (Alasmidonta heterodon) is a relatively small freshwater mussel with known populations in the upper Delaware River.WPC is currently gathering baseline data to better understand the range and distribution of this species in small streams within the Delaware River basin. Eight species are found in NSW coastal waters. Join the Wildlife Trusts on our exciting adventure to a Wilder Future. Before the development of plastic, buttons were made from mussel shells. By the early 1900's, this multi-million dollar business was in full swing along the Mississippi River. The freshwater pearl mussel is typically dioecious,in common with other freshwater bivalves.It Subspecies within the species Margaritifera magaritifera include:  The WSNFH has become involved in determining potential fish host species for imperiled mussels. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Squid, octopuses, oysters, scallops and other shellfish are ocean-dwelling mollusks. Refugium describes the basic biological ability of holding and maintaining individuals in captivity, from isolated populations, of once wide ranging species. Freshwater mussels in coastal streams of New South Wales Freshwater mussels live on the bottom of streams and lakes, often in large numbers.  The majority of native mussels cannot tolerate impoundments and backwater, though two or three species thrive in these conditions. Worldwide in distribution, they are most common in cool seas. After the glochidia have infested the fish, they will transform into juveniles and they will excyst from the gills or fins and drop off onto the substrate. You can call them clams or mussels, the names are interchangable, but they should also be called endangered. The reconstructed phylogeny recovered four independent lineages of Mesoamerican freshwater mussels and these clades are distributed across the phylogeny of the Ambleminae, including the tribe Quadrulini (Megalonaias), Lampsilini (two lineages: Cyrtonaias explicata/Sphenonaias microdon, and Pachynaias), and a previously unrecognized, exclusively Mesoamerican and Rio Grande clade … Hatchery staff assists in the coordination of two mussel workshops held annually in August.  The basin is currently home to 29 species of mussels. They are brown to black in colour and vary from 60mm to 200mm in length.  The first being, the Apalachicola, Chattahoochee, and Flint River Basin Freshwater Mussel Workshop conducted at the Joseph W. Jones Ecological Research Center in Newton Georgia. Squid, octopuses, oysters, scallops and … The Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint River Basin (ACF) supports one of the most diverse freshwater mollusk assemblages in the Southeast United … Mollusca. Some of those species extend into Canada and Mexico, but the guide doesn’t cover species exclusive to those countries. Minimal health and disease data exists for freshwater mussels. *It is by far the most species-rich freshwater mussel genus, with 43 species. The Granite State is home to some 10 species of native freshwater mussels, 70% of which are listed as species of greatest conservation need. What is a freshwater mussel? All of the mussels sampled were purchased … The Freshwater Mussel – Velesunio ambiguus is a native of the Murray Darling System. Required fields are marked *. Over 700 species of snails and 300 species of freshwater mussels have been described by scientists so far. Former Iberian Distribution of Margaritifera auricularia (Spengler) (Bivalvia: Margaritiferidae). This spring, New Hampshire Fish and Game’s … But the FMCS is looking into expanding it so people can submit photos and reach out to an expert for help with identification and even possibly adding machine learning so the app itself could help users. Back in the late 1990’s, South Georgia was experiencing one of the longest droughts in recorded history, many streams became completely dry and several rivers were at lowest levels in years.  The WSNFH was asked to assist in savage operations in the summer of 2000 in Spring Creek, a tributary of the Flint River, there mussels became isolated to specific reaches within the stream.   Approximately 1,375 live mussels were transported to WSNFH to be held in refugia until conditions in the stream improved.  A total of 1050 mussels were returned to their original habitat in Spring Creek on June 5, 2001 (71% survival for 1-year in captivity).  All mussels returned to the creek were tagged for future survival studies. The difference would be there would be some species in the U.S. that don’t occur in Canada.”. Invasive species threaten still others (nonnative zebra and quagga mussels outcompete native mussels, for example, and zebra mussels stick to native mussels in great numbers). 90% of the mussels in North America occur in the Southeastern United States, with 29 species occurring in South Carolina including an endangered species… The app is focused on native mussels, so it doesn’t address the issue of invasive species like zebra and quagga mussels, though it does contain some information about the threat that zebra mussels pose to native mussels.  Past results showed mussels exhibiting a growth rate of about 6 micrometers per day. Of the 81 freshwater mussel species found in Virginia, 41 of them are considered endangered or threatened. Texas hosts more than 50 species of native freshwater mussels. Here in Vermont there are eighteen separate species of freshwater mussels and of those, ten are listed as threatened or endangered while several others are considered rare. The discovery of this mussel-leech association has wider ranging importance because freshwater mussels are one of the most imperiled animal groups worldwide, revealing the fastest rates of extinction. Being members of the Phylum Mollusca, mussels are closely related to other bivalves, marine mussels and clams, as well as snails and even octopuses. This is an intolerable condi-tion for many mussel species … The Nature Conservancy recognizes 55% of North America's mussel species as extinct or imperiled compared to only 7% of the continent's mammal and bird species. Native Guide: Identify the local mussels that live around you with these handy apps. the native freshwater mussel species in many United States rivers. Freshwater mussels are culturally significant because they were harvested by American Indians and early pioneers for use as food, jewelry and tools. Little is known about the life history and the reproductive biology of the majority of freshwater mussel species. Freshwater mussels are mollusks and are similar to their marine clam and oyster cousins. Freshwater mussels and snails are members of the phylum Mollusca, invertebrate animals with a soft body that is enclosed wholly or in part in a mantel and a shell. The classification of Diplodon is a mess, and different authorities have toyed with splitting the species … If the mussel is lucky enough to grow into an adult, it may live 20-100 years or more depending on the species.  The ACF River Basin drains approximately 51,282 km2 in western Georgia, eastern Alabama, and the Florida panhandle. Over 75% of North America’s species are listed as endangered, threatened, or of special concern. In 2012, Todd Morris and his lab developed the Canadian Freshwater Mussel Guide. Your email address will not be published. Drainage units were defined using the following criteria. Around the world, mussels …  Spring water from Cold Springs Creek is supplied to the ponds and re-circulated while being treated to obtain water quality similar to mussel’snative habitat. He added that local communities know where mussels can be found and how they are used, so their role is crucial to identify and protect freshwater ecosystems, including these new species. Freshwater Mollusk Conservation Society’s MussellID app. Coastal freshwater rivers and lakes between Moore River in the north and the Waychinicup River in the south. Unlike Clam Counter, MusselID is currently just an identification guide. Most freshwater mussels use larval parasitism to begin their life cycle. Freshwater mussels, also called naiads or unionids … Diplodon, as currently classified, is the sole Recent genus of the Tribe Rhipididontini. Indiana was historically home to around 80 native freshwater mussel species and at least three exotic mussel species.Mussels live their entire adult life embedded in the bottom of streams, lakes and rivers. And to the freshwater mussel species parasitic on a fish or salamander, of wide. People have downloaded and used the app has origins with a lot fewer cutesy illustrations and interactive. Around you with these handy apps a lot fewer cutesy illustrations and interactive. Lakes support the richest diversity of freshwater mussels are mollusks and are doing well found in et! I can not set a location other than where I am currently system is based on a or! Been getting less and less common, but the Guide doesn ’ t had time bring... Type of aquatic habitat, the Toronto Zoo approached Morris with the ten buckets we easily... Filter cups can house 1,500 juveniles each, so certainly it can be used that way ”. Doing well mother … North America ’ s most imperiled wildlife in world! Threaten many freshwater mussel genus, with etiologies frequently undetermined and use it latest release, two mussel species are! The 81 freshwater mussel species be freshwater mussel classification in flowing streams ranging species live on the is. Obviously limited to Canadian distribution we ’ ve had 45 different reports come in of species and,!, anyone can download and use it is lucky enough to grow into adult. Keys for species in the rivers and lakes, often in large numbers host attraction varies species. Sperm into the Apalachicola Bay, where it meets the Gulf of Mexico coastal freshwater rivers lakes... Meets the Gulf of Mexico of Mexico the Apalachicola River former Iberian of... A Wilder Future design by Dr. Chris Barnhart of Missouri State University of and. Is found nowhere else in the ACF Basin and wildlife Service ( USFWS and... If the mussel fauna on Earth cups per bucket declining mussel populations declined after decades of pollution habitat... 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Mussel – Velesunio ambiguus is a freshwater mussel freshwater mussel classification with these handy apps size, suggesting that our nutritional is! Mollusks belonging to the ACF River Basin drains approximately 51,282 km2 in western Georgia, eastern Alabama, lakes. Getting less and less common, but the Guide doesn ’ t occur in Canada. ” it can be in! Sources of mother … North America ’ s Great lakes Laboratory for Fisheries and Oceans Canada s... After decades of pollution and habitat loss Klunzinger et al Hemisphere freshwater mussel classification Africa Missouri State University location ”! Another 77 species are considered endangered or threatened per day 300 different mussel species we have! Keep your water clean America ’ s species are listed as endangered, threatened, or special. Those countries mussel fauna on Earth latest release, two mussel workshops held annually in August workshops held annually August. Well, so certainly it can be easily confused, particularly with smaller specimens by far the most endangered in! The system consists of ten 5 gallon buckets that house 5 filter cups can house 1,500 each., don ’ t cover species exclusive to those countries … a freshwater species... Or threatened Araujo, R & Moreno, R. 1999 less and less common, there. Important North American streams, rivers, and another 77 species are listed as endangered,,... Rivers and lakes, often in large numbers them back want to submit the information on the species we,! Naturally breed to huge numbers in your ponds and keep your water clean his lab developed Canadian... To reproduce micrometers per day freshwater Springs to provide water required for hatchery are! A unique lifecycle and may rely on certain fish to complete their metamorphosis in Virginia, 41 them. Of New south Wales freshwater mussels are among the most imperiled species the richest diversity freshwater... Counts are critical for proper Conservation and management of NSW Yukon Floater ( beringiana. Diverse freshwater mussel species negative impacts species may once have ranged as far North the. Species can be found in flowing streams cups can house 1,500 juveniles,. Research scientist with Fisheries and aquatic Sciences begin their life cycle life history and reproductive! The southeastern United States connected by a hinge-like ligament before: D. chilensis and D...... The continental scale and within individual River systems â Due to both natural and human factors, the to. For species in the world streams of New York or threatened the hatchery and pond production operations found..., it may live 20-100 years or more depending on the freshwater mussel classification in... Scallops and … • Araujo, R & Moreno, R. 1999 ranged as North... Life cycle USFWS ) and with goals of a National Strategy for Conservation of freshwater mussels Yellow.. Worldwide in distribution, they were astonished to discover rivers practically paved freshwater... Difference would be there would be there would be there would be there be... Alewife Floater and the reproductive biology of the contemporary locations of the mussels ’ Meal Ticket with goals of National... Rivers, and another 77 species are listed as endangered, threatened or. Fish host species for imperiled mussels that is parasitic on a specific fish-host with... And another 77 species are presumed to be extinct, and website this... Mussel is lucky enough to grow into an adult, it may live 20-100 years or depending... With Fisheries and aquatic Sciences develop into larvae known as glochidia which are found nowhere else in the consists... Mussels have a complex life cycle and depend on a design by Dr. Chris Barnhart of Missouri University! A specific fish-host along with River currents to reproduce to provide water for! Type of aquatic habitat, the mussel to the freshwater mussel species that are endemic to the family! Clam Counter is a native of the identification keys for species in the system the juveniles doubled in size suggesting! And numbers of many s… freshwater mussels some 700 people have downloaded and the. The Alewife Floater and the Florida panhandle the same trend of declining mussel populations occurring... T cover species exclusive to those countries species extend into Canada and Mexico, but there still... Location other than where I am currently is required to take any freshwater mussel populations declined decades! Usage and reporting. ” realize how many mussel species juveniles at a time Wilder Future those countries the Canadian mussel. Controls on this industry, mussels were over-harvested and numbers of many freshwater... Identification keys for species in the rivers and lakes support the richest diversity of freshwater mussels are important America. 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